Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as a chronic, mental health disorder. It is a complex psychological condition that is characterized by pervasive instability in moods, emotions, behaviors, and interpersonal relationships. This instability interferes with one’s ability to function in his or her daily life, long-term planning, as well as an individual’s sense of identity. Individuals diagnosed with borderline personality disorder often experience swift mood swings, including intense episodes of depression, anger and/ or anxiety that could range in duration, lasting as short as a couple of hours to several days. Although the cause of borderline personality disorder remains unknown, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIH) alludes to research that “suggests that genetics, brain structure and function, and environmental, cultural, and social factors play a role, or may increase the risk for developing borderline personality disorder.” BPD typically develops in early adulthood, often with more severe symptoms occurring in the early stages of onset.
Signs and Symptoms
Borderline personality disorder directly affects how one feels about him or herself, one’s behavior, as well as how an individual can relate to others. The symptoms associated with BPD frequently result in highly unstable patterns of social relationships. This chronic condition is also associated with high rates of self-injury and suicidal behavior. According to the DSM-5 key signs and symptoms of BPD may include:
- Unstable personal relationships that alternate between idealization and devaluation, sometimes referred to as splitting
- Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment by family and friends
- Impulsive behaviors resulting in dangerous outcomes (e.g., engaging in unsafe sex, reckless driving, abuse of drugs, etc.)
- Distorted and unstable self-image, affecting one’s moods, relationships, goals, values, and/ or opinions
- Self-harming behavior
- Chronic feelings of emptiness and/ or boredom
- Periods of intense depressed mood, irritability and/ or anxiety lasting anywhere from a few hours to a few days long
- Dissociative feelings
- Intense, inappropriate, and/ or uncontrollable anger, typically followed by feelings of guilt and/ or shame
The diagnostic criteria outlined in the DSM-5, indicates that to be clinically diagnosed with BPD an individual must experience five or more symptoms, in a variety of contexts.
Further Information and Support
Navigating the challenges that arise from living with mental illness, struggling with substance abuse, and/ or addiction can not only be all consuming but are often impossible to effectively handle without proper support. If you are concerned for yourself or a loved one regarding mental illness, substance abuse, and/ or addiction we recommend reaching out for help as soon as possible. Bear in mind that you do not have to be on this journey alone. At Upwell Advisors, we offer unique, customized concierge therapeutic services to provide our clients with unparalleled support throughout every step of the recovery process.
If left untreated, substance abuse, addiction, and/ or mental illness can result in long lasting and potentially life-threatening consequences. The earlier you seek support, the sooner you and your loved ones can return to leading happy, healthy, and fulfilling lives. Please do not hesitate to reach out for guidance. We welcome the opportunity to discuss how we might best be able to help you or your loved one in the recovery process.